Duck Rillettes

Rillettes are a coarse meat spread similar to the cretons popular in Québec. Most modern recipes call for them to be made from duck legs confit but I suspect that their origin was more modest, as a way to use up the last bits of meat left over from the stock pot. I simply cannot imagine a farm wife throwing away all that meat. I added the duck liver as well, giving the result a bit more of a paté flavor.  

Unlike a usual recipe, I am not specifying quantities of ingredients. The amount of meat will depend on how big your duck was and the flavoring is matter of judgment. A typical duck should yield about two cups of rillettes.

Ingredients

Duck fat or olive oil

Minced onion

Duck liver, coarsely chopped

Duck meat picked from bones and neck used to make stock

Giblets used in the stock

Ground cloves

Ground cinnamon

Dried thyme leaves

Dried savoy leaves

Heavy cream (36%)

Salt and pepper

 

Method

Gently sauté the onion in a bit of duck fat or olive oil. When softened, add the chopped liver and cook until done. Set aside to cool a bit.

If needed, coarsely chop the meat pickings and giblets. Place in a food processor along with the liver and onions. Add the spices and herbs. Pulse once or twice to combine. Add some cream, season with salt and pepper, then pulse a few more times to yield a coarse paste.

Serve on crostini or French bread.

Review: Social on State

Although Social on State is billed as a tapas restaurant, do not go there looking for traditional Spanish snacks. The extensive menu of small plates intended for sharing consists mostly of familiar American and continental fare. The variety is inventive and impressive ranging from mac and cheese to shaved Brussels sprouts. Some, like chicken osso buco, are a bit fanciful (I was not even aware that chicken had shanks). Having just come from some rather heavy grazing at a nearby art opening we only sampled two of the 31 dishes on offer. The thin, spiral cut house fries could have been a bit crispier but the three sauces that came with themroasted garlic aioli, beer barbeque, and Sriracha bleu cheese—compensated well. The lamb lollipops, Frenched lambchops, were wonderful if cooked a bit beyond the medium rare we ordered. The beet balsamic puree they were served on made a beautiful plate but lacked much in the way of vinegar flavor. As is de rigueur in stylish restaurants these days, Social on State has a lengthy menu of hipster martinis. The Hot and Dirty with Sriracha and olive brine was, if not exactly a classic martini, interesting. Paying homage to the recent explosion of craft brewing in upstate New York, the bar features a rotating selection of a dozen beers from three regional breweries: this month featuring four each from Cortland, Horseheads, and Upstate. The space is pleasant and quiet with a comfortable bar and ample seating. I could have done without the ubiquitous large screen TV showing a basketball game but I suppose that simply reflects my general disinterest in sports. A temporary outside foyer somewhat reduces the cold blast when the door opens but on an evening of single-digit temperatures one is well advised to sit away from the front. Prices are a bit steep for Binghamton—small plates ranged from $5 to $15 with most on the high side of $10. Martinis at $8 were at the going rate. Still, on a frigid Thursday evening the place was well populated and on weekends is often hard to get into. It is difficult to predict how long downtown Binghamton’s dining renaissance will last, but Social on State is certainly a welcome addition.

http://socialonstate.com/

Sourdough Toasting Bread

Sourdough English Muffin Bread-2For me, breakfast is not breakfast without toast. But it can be difficult to find a bread that toasts well. Most commercial loaves are too soft making rather gummy toast. I have experimented with several recipes to get what I consider just the right density. Using sourdough starter gives the bread a slight tartness that works very well with jam.

This recipe makes four 500-gram (1.1 pound loaves) in standard medium loaf pans. I wrap three of the loaves in heavy duty aluminum foil and freeze them.

A note on measurements: it is nearly impossible to achieve consistent results baking bread by volume—only gravimetric measures are accurate enough. (The weight of a cup of flour can vary by 10% or more.) Digital kitchen scales are very inexpensive today and every serious cook should own one. For making bread I much prefer to use metric units because they are more precise. Even those not familiar with the metric system can use it by simple setting the scale accordingly. 

Ingredients

100% hydration sourdough starter

350 grams

Warm water (45°C, 100°F)

483 milliliters (grams)

Sugar

23 grams

Dry milk powder

47 grams

Unbleached white bread flour

800 grams

Whole wheat flour

200 grams

Oil or butter at room temperature

58 grams

Salt

24 grams

Instant dry yeast

10 grams

Method

I make bread using a heavy-duty stand mixer. If you do not have one simply use a large bowl to mix the dough then knead by hand on a well-floured surface.

Place the bowl of a heavy-duty stand mixer onto the scale and zero it. Weigh in each of the ingredients, zeroing the scale between each addition. Mount the bowl on the mixer fitted with a dough hook and knead on the recommended speed setting for your mixer for five minutes after the dough comes together.

At this point I like to weigh the dough to make dividing it later more accurate.

Warm a large, heavy earthenware or glass bowl with hot water then dry and pour in enough oil to just cover the bottom. Form the dough into a large ball, place it in the bowl, and roll it around so that it is evenly coated with the oil. Place a piece of plastic wrap directly onto the surface of the dough and cover the bowl with a kitchen towel. Set aside to proof until doubled in size, about one to one and a half hours depending on the temperature. Note that a long rising at a lower temperature yields a more finely-textured bread.

At the end of proofing, preheat oven to 190°C (375°F), punch down the dough, and divide it into four equal portions. (I use the scale to get them exactly equal.) Form the loaves and place them in lightly-oiled pans dusted with the cornmeal or semolina. Cover with a towel and allow to rise again until the dough is about 1 cm (½ inch) above the sides of the pan. Bake for about 35 minutes. The best way to determine doneness is with a thermometer; the center of the loaf should be between 90°C and 95°C (195°F and 200°F).

Amsterdam Mashed Potatoes

While casting about for something to do with the pound or so of left over sauerkraut in my refrigerator I came across this recipe. I am not sure what, if anything, it has to do with Amsterdam although it is similar to Boerenkool Stampott—mashed potatoes with kale—which does seem to be typically Dutch. If this seems like rather a lot of heavy cream and butter you can substitute non-fat for some or all of the cream and reduce the amount of butter. If you do, consider compensating by adding a bit of chopped bacon which goes especially well with sauerkraut. Serve this with sausage or pork chops.

Ingredients

Potatoes                                                              1 kilogram (2 pounds), about 6 medium, peeled and halved

Unsalted butter                                                70 grams (5 Tablespoons)

Heavy cream (36%)                                      125 milliliters (½ cup)

Onion, minced                                                  100 grams (1 medium)

Sauerkraut                                                         500 grams (1 pound)

Water                                                                   1 cup

Salt and pepper                                                To taste

 

Method

Cook the potatoes in salted boiling water until tender. Drain well then return to low heat to dry well, being careful not to burn. Put the potatoes through a ricer into a bowl. Beat in 3 tablespoons of the butter and enough of the cream to make the potatoes creamy and fluffy.

In a saucepan, over medium heat, melt the remaining butter and cook the onion until soft. Do not brown. Blend in the sauerkraut and water. Cover and simmer 35 minutes, stirring occasionally so the sauerkraut does not burn, adding small amounts of water if necessary.

When all the water has cooked off and the sauerkraut is tender, fold it into the mashed potatoes. Season with salt and pepper. Warm over low heat if necessary.

 

Kasha with Root Vegetables

Buckwheat is an ancient crop that has been a staple food for centuries, especially in cold regions with short growing seasons. The word kasha comes from Persian for porridge although in the United States it commonly refers specifically to buckwheat groats after the Polish and Yiddish usages. Interestingly, it is not a true cereal grain actually an herb related to rhubarb. Nonetheless it is usually prepared in the same way as grain like rice, wheat, or millet. In this recipe, I prepare the kasha with root vegetables and onions as a colorful, tasty side dish. I used carrots and beets, but turnips, parsnips, or rutabagas would also work. Mushrooms would also be a nice addition. Chose the stock to complement whatever you are serving the pilaf with—I used shrimp stock to go with salmon cakes. When in doubt, chicken stock will always do as will plain water in a pinch. Because kasha cooks rather quickly, the roots have to be tender before adding since they will not have time to soften in the pot.  

Makes two to four servings

Ingredients

 

Kasha

100 grams

½ cup

Egg white

1

1

Oil or butter

As needed

As needed

Onion

100 grams

One small

Carrot

100 grams

One medium

Beet

100 grams

One medium

Stock

250 milliliters

1 cup

Salt and pepper

To taste

To taste

Method

Rinse the kasha and drain well. Put it into a bowl and stir in the egg white making sure that the grains are well-coated. Set aside.

Cut the vegetables into small dice, about 6mm (1/4 inch). Heat about 15 milliliters (1 Tablespoon) butter or oil in a non-stick frying pan and sauté each of them in turn over medium heat starting with the onion and ending with the beet. As each is done, set it aside.

Bring the stock to a simmer.  

If needed add a bit of butter or oil to the pan and fry the kasha over medium heat until the grains are dry and separate. Stir in the stock then the vegetables. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Cover tightly and set over low heat until all of the stock is absorbed, around ten minutes.

Fluff with a fork and serve hot.

Roasted Duck with Root Vegetables

Duck with root vegetables

Although the consumption of duck in the United States has risen by some 35% over the past two decades it lags far behind that of chicken. Roughly 24 million ducks are eaten here annually compared with more than eight billion chickens. Price accounts for part of that: duck costs two to three times what chicken does. But perhaps the main reason we eat less duck than many other countries is misinformation. Many people think that duck is difficult to prepare and high in fat: the first is untrue, the second true but with a caveat. Yes, duck, being a water bird and thus needing a layer of insulation, has more fat than chicken. But like with chicken, the fat is subcutaneous meaning that the meat itself is quite lean. And duck fat, much prized in France and elsewhere as a cooking fat, is about halfway between olive oil and butter in composition. Duck fat contains 50.5% monounsaturated fats, 35.7% saturated fats, and 13.7% polyunsaturated fats compared to olive oil with 75% monounsaturated, 13% saturated, and 12% polyunsaturated and butter with 21% monounsaturated, 51% saturated, and 3% polyunsaturated. Duck is no harder to cook than chicken but must be handled a bit differently to manage that fat. Most recipes for roasting duck call for pricking the skin and letting the fat collect in the roasting pan. But there is a better way: steaming or poaching the duck to render out the fat before roasting it. Not only does this result in a lean bird with crispy skin but the cooking liquid yields a delicious broth for making gravy and mildly flavored fat perfect for roasting root vegetables. For those I use potatoes, beets, carrots, turnips, or parsnips depending on what I have on hand. You can also add some halved Brussels sprouts.

(Recipe adapted from Jamie Oliver’s The Naked Chef (NY: Hyperion, 1999), 124-125)

Ingredients

 

Duck

About 2 kilograms

About 4 pounds

White wine or water

250 milliliters

1 cup

Dried thyme

5 milliliters

1 teaspoon

Dried parsley

5 milliliters

1 teaspoon

Dried savory, optional

5 milliliters

1 teaspoon

Assorted root vegetables, cubed

About 1 kilogram

About 1 pound

Flour

About 30 milliliters

About 2 Tablespoons

Salt and pepper

To taste

To taste

Method

Preheat oven to 220°C (425°F).

If present, remove the giblets from the duck and set aside for another use. Pat the bird dry and season inside and out with salt and pepper. Truss if desired. Put a rack into the bottom of a large Dutch oven and pour in the wine. Place the duck on the rack and sprinkle on the dried herbs. Bring the liquid to a boil on the top of the stove, cover, and place in the oven.

If your duck does not fit in your Dutch oven, put it on a rack in a roasting pan, adjust the amount of liquid as needed, and cover tightly with aluminum foil.

Prepare a roasting pan with a rack for the duck and a suitable sheet pan for the vegetables. After an hour, remove the pot from the oven and transfer the duck to the rack in the roasting pan, leaving as much fat and juice as possible behind in the Dutch oven. Pour the cooking liquid and fat into grease separator or a measuring cup. When the fat has risen to the top, separate it from the broth and set both aside.

Reduce oven temperature to 190°C (375°F). Arrange the oven racks so that one is at the lowest level and another is two levels above it. Place the roasting pan with the duck onto the top rack.

If you are using beets, you might wish to parboil them for about 15 or 20 minutes and let cool.

Put the vegetables into a large bowl and toss with some of the duck fat. Season with salt and pepper. Spread on the sheet pan in a single layer. Place the pan onto the lower oven rack.

The duck and vegetables should be done in about 40 minutes. Check that the temperature of the duck measured in the thigh is 80°C (175°F) and that the vegetables are tender. Remove the duck from the oven and cover loosely with foil. You can leave the vegetables in the turned-off oven while you make the gravy.

Put 30 milliliters (2 Tablespoons) of the duck fat into a sauce pan. Stir in the flour to make a smooth roux. Strain the broth and add it a bit at a time to the roux while whisking vigorously until it comes to a boil. Keep adding broth until the gravy is the consistency you prefer. If you do not have enough broth, use water or stock.

Arrange the vegetables on a serving platter and place duck on top of them. Serve with the gravy.

Bay Scallop Risotto

Scallops are just about my favorite seafood. Unfortunately, the large sea scallops that I prefer have become prohibitively expensive. The smaller, somewhat sweeter farm-raised bay scallops, however, remain affordable. I find that even when dry-packed they contain too much water to sear properly so they are best served in a sauce, gratinée, or in a rice dish. One could simply add the raw scallops to the risotto and let the hot rice cook them, but I prefer to poach them lightly first, in part to extract some of their flavor with which to infuse the rice. The bacon is optional but I think that it is the perfect foil for scallops. And one could use onion or shallot or both either with or in place of the garlic. I folded in a bit of grated asiago before serving—parmesan or Romano would work equally well.

Serves two.

Ingredients

 

Bay scallops

250 grams

8 ounces

Water

750 milliliters

3¼ cups

Shrimp shells and tails (optional)

30 grams

1 ounce

Bacon (optional)

30 grams

1 ounce (one rasher)

Olive oil

15 milliliters

1 Tablespoon

Garlic, minced

15 grams

about 1 Tablespoon

Arborio rice

250 grams

1 cup

Vermouth or white whine

50 milliliters

¼ cup

Spinach, chopped

100 grams

4 ounces

Salt

to taste

to taste

Truffle oil (optional)

5 milliliters

1 teaspoon

Asiago cheese, grated

20 grams

1 Tablespoon

 

Method

Bring the water to a boil and remove from the heat. Add the scallops and let them poach for a minute or two. Remove with a slotted spoon and set aside. Put the shrimp shells, if using, into the water and let them steep for a few minutes. Remove and discard. Keep the liquid at a simmer while making the risotto.

Heat the olive oil in a heavy-bottomed pan over medium heat and cook the bacon until crispy. Remove and set aside, leaving as much fat in the pan as possible. Sauté the garlic in the hot fat for a few seconds then add the rice. Fry, stirring constantly, until the rice is chalky and the garlic has begun to color somewhat, about 5 minutes. Stir in the vermouth or wine and let the alcohol boil off, then add about 120 milliliters (½ cup) of the water. Stir until the liquid is almost absorbed. Continue adding water 60 milliliters (¼ cup) at a time, stirring each addition until almost absorbed. When about two thirds of the water is gone, fold in the chopped spinach. Continue stirring liquid until it is almost gone then check the rice for doneness—it should be tender with just a hint of “tooth.” Season to taste with salt and fold in the scallops, truffle oil if using, and cheese.

Serve hot.

Buttermilk White Bread

First published in 1973, Beard on Bread by James A. Beard is a classic that got many of us of a certain age interested in the art of baking bread. The fact that the book was still in print in 2008 when I bought my 1995 paperback edition attests to its popularity. It does, however, share a major shortcoming with nearly every other American cookbook: all the measurements are by volume in Imperial units. This makes the recipes needlessly difficult to reproduce accurately and almost impossible to scale successfully.  So, I have taken to adapting—reverse engineering, if you will—my favorite recipes from this book into baker’s percentages and gravimetric metric units. You need not become completely fluent in the metric system to use these recipes; just buy a digital scale that reads in metric units. In fact, you can even buy a baker’s scale that lets you work directly from baker’s percentages.

The first step in converting the recipe is to change the volumetric units to metric weights.

 

Ingredient

Recipe amount

Metric weight

Active dry yeast

2 packages

14 grams

Granulated sugar

1 Tablespoon

12 grams

Warm water

½ cup

113 grams

Unbleached bread flour

4 cups

508 grams

Salt*

1 Tablespoon

17 grams

Unsalted butter

3 Tablespoons

42 grams

Buttermilk

1 to 1½ cups

240 to 360 grams

* assumes table salt, kosher salt has a somewhat different density.

 

Now one can calculate the baker’s percentages of the ingredients. I chose to use the lower amount of buttermilk which results in a hydration ratio of 69%, which is about right for this sort of bread. Also, I converted the buttermilk to equivalent amounts of water and dry buttermilk powder. I rearranged the order of the ingredients to make the baker’s percentages clearer.

 

Ingredient

Metric weight

Percentage

Unbleached bread flour

508 grams

100%

Warm water

353 grams

69%

Buttermilk powder

30 grams

6%

Granulated sugar

12 grams

2.3%

Active dry yeast

14 grams

2.7%

Salt

17 grams

3.3%

Unsalted butter

42 grams

8%

 

Since I want to scale up the recipe, I need to calculate the total percentages. They come to 191.3%. To make four 500-gram loaves, then, I need 1045 grams of flour (2000g/1.913). The baker’s percentages let me easily calculate the needed weight of each of the remaining ingredients. And I rearranged the ingredients again, this time into the order they are used. Note my usual caveat: the Imperial units are roughly equivalent to the metric ones but the two are not interchangeable.

Ingredients

 

Water

721 grams

3¼ cups

Granulated sugar

24 grams

2 Tablespoons

Dry yeast

28 grams

4 packages

Unsalted butter, melted

84 grams

5½ Tablespoons

Unbleached bread flour

1045 grams

8 cups

Buttermilk powder

63 grams

½ cup

Salt

34 grams

1¾ Tablespoons

Method

Weight the first four ingredients into the bowl of a heavy-duty stand mixer and stir to combine. Add the dry ingredients and knead with the dough hook for about 10 minutes on the recommended power setting. Turn the dough out onto a floured surface—it will be rather sticky—and with floured hands form into a ball.  

Pour enough oil into a large earthenware or glass bowl to just cover the bottom. Add the dough and roll it around so that it is evenly coated with the oil. Cover loosely with a piece of plastic wrap set directly on the dough and cover the bowl with a kitchen towel. Set aside to proof until doubled in size, about one to one and a half hours depending on the temperature.

At the end of proofing, punch down the dough and divide it into four equal parts. Form the loaves and place them in lightly-oiled pans. Cover with a towel and allow to rise again until the dough is just above the sides of the pan.

Bake in a preheated 190°C (375°F) for about 40 minutes. (I use the convect pastry setting on my convection oven). The best way to determine doneness is with a thermometer; the center of the loaf should be between 95°C (200°F) and 100°C (212°F).

Andouille and Sweet Potato Hash

The question “what’s for dinner?” at our house is often rephrased as “what’s about to go bad?” I confess that I sometimes pick up items from the market that look good at the time but which I have no plans for how to use, so they sit accusingly on the counter or in the refrigerator until I am forced to put them out of their misery in the compost bin. And, of course, I then feel guilty for having wasted food. Yesterday I had to euthanize a couple of avocados that went unnoticed from unripe to an unhealthy dark brown. The two sweet potatoes looking on accusingly from a basket on the kitchen counter pled that I not condemn them to the same fate. As luck would have it, a package of Andouille sausage I had bought held a couple more links than would fit in a freezer bag so I had two seemingly compatible ingredients. A hot chili in the crisper drawer—the lone survivor of another enthusiastic purchase—rounded out the tableau. A quick Internet search turned up a suitable recipe which I adapted to suit my tastes.

Serves two as a one-dish dinner; four as a breakfast side dish with eggs.

Ingredients

 

Oil or lard

15 milliliters

1 Tablespoon

Andouille sausage, diced

250 grams

8 ounces (2 medium links)

Cinnamon, ground

1 milliliter

¼ teaspoon

Cumin, ground

5 milliliters

1 teaspoon

Sweet potato, cut into small dice

400 to 500 grams

about 1 pound (2 medium)

Onion, cut into small dice

150 grams

5 ounces (1 medium)

Jalapeño or bell pepper, seeded and minced

30 grams

1 ounce (or to taste)

Salt and pepper

to taste

to taste

Method

Heat the fat in a skillet over medium heat and add the sausage. If it is raw, cook it until nicely browned; if cooked, as most store-bought Andouille is, simply heat it for about 5 minutes to render some of its fat. Sprinkle on the cinnamon and cumin, stirring to coat evenly.

Add the sweet potato, onion, and jalapeno or bell pepper to the skillet and stir to combine. Turn the heat to low, cover, and cook gently until the sweet potatoes are tender, about 20 minutes, stirring from time to time to prevent sticking.

Season to taste with salt and pepper and serve hot.

Coq au vin

This classic French braise is almost certainly derived from a peasant dish. It would have been made in a large cauldron over an open hearth and once an ingredient went in it did not come back out until the dish was done. Similarly the wine would probably have been rather rough and a few days past drinkability. I have tried to find a middle ground between the farm and the haute cuisine restaurant, eschewing some of the more precious touches that have crept into the recipe. After all, this was originally a way to make a “retired” laying chicken tender. I’m sure it is still best made with a tough old bird full of flavor. But, alas, such are nearly impossible to procure today. I like to use leg quarters rather than whole chicken because the breast meat of today’s young frying chickens is just too delicate for the long cooking this recipe requires. Although some insist that one must use a good wine for cooking, I find that a reasonable box or jug wine is just fine. Traditionally the sauce was thickened with chicken blood mixed with pounded liver and brandy; modern recipes use beurre manie. Rice flour works well if you can to make the dish gluten-free. Be sure to allow plenty of time for the chicken to cook, especially if you are using an older bird otherwise it will be tough.

Ingredients

 

Bacon

60 grams

2 ounces (about 2 rashers)

Chicken fat, butter, or oil

15 milliliters

1 Tablespoon

Chicken pieces

2 kilograms, approx.

5 pounds, approx.

Pearl onions

120 grams

4 ounces

Carrot, diced

60 grams

2 ounces

Celery, diced

60 grams

2 ounces

Garlic, minced

6 cloves

6 cloves

Mushrooms, thickly sliced

120 gram

8 ounces

Cognac

65 milliliters

¼ cup

Dry red wine

about 500 milliliters

about 2 cups

Dried thyme

5 milliliters

1 teaspoon

Salt

to taste

to taste

Freshly ground pepper

to taste

to taste

Butter, unsalted, softened

30 grams

2 Tablespoons

Flour

30 grams

2 Tablespoons

Method

Preheat oven to 160°C (325°F).

Cut the bacon into lardons, i.e. pieces about the size of matchstick. If you have sliced bacon cut it crosswise into 3 mm (⅛-inch pieces). Heat the fat in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat and render the bacon until crispy. Remove to a bowl leaving as much fat behind as possible.

Turn the heat up a bit and, working in batches, brown the chicken pieces well on all sides. Remove to a plate and set aside.

Reduce the heat to medium. Sweat the onions, carrots, and celery until they begin to soften. Add the garlic and mushrooms. Continue to cook the mushrooms give off their liquid.

Return the chicken pieces to the pot and pour in the brandy. Turn off the vent hood, if it is on. and light the vapors with a long match. When the flames die down, add the wine to just cover the chicken. Return the lardons to the pot and season everything with thyme, salt, and pepper. Bring to a boil, cover, and place in the hot oven. Bake for about 30 minutes—several hours for an old bird. Remove the cover and return the pot to the oven for another 15 minutes.

Skim the fat off of the liquid and add to the softened butter. Mix in the flour to make a smooth paste, beurre manie. Stir into the broth and bring to a boil to thicken.

Serve hot over noodles or potatoes. Or, best of all, by itself with some crusty French bread.

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